Genu recurvatum

What Is Genu Recurvatum? (with pictures)

Genu recurvatum

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  • Written By: Melissa Sandoval
  • Edited By: A. Joseph
  • Last Modified Date: 22 July 2019
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Genu recurvatum, or “back knee,” is hyperextension of the knee to greater than 5 degrees. The three types of genu recurvatum are external rotary deformity (ERD) recurvatum, internal rotary deformity (IRD) recurvatum and nonrotary deformity (NRD) recurvatum.

Knee hyperextension is sometimes the result of misalignment of the ankle joint; it can also result from knee injury, excess laxity in the knee joint or postural habits. Hyperextension of the knee can cause stress in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior knee structures and lead to permanent damage of the joint.

Physical therapists often tape or brace the knee in patients who have genu recurvatum, and therapists provide proprioceptive training, muscle imbalance correction and gait training.

Genu recurvatum occurs more often in females than in males. Abnormal foot and ankle position during walking or injuries that involve hyperextension of the knee can cause genu recurvatum.

Symptoms include pain in the medial tibiofemoral joint, which is the inner-leg portion of the knee, or in the posteriolateral ligamentous structures in the outer back portion of the knee.

Untreated genu recurvatum leads to increased tissue damage and can cause permanent deformity, so timely diagnosis and treatment are important.

External rotary deformity recurvatum occurs when the foot remains in an equinovarus position during walking, with the heel elevated and the forefoot pointed inward, which causes hyperextension of the knee. ERD usually is seen in stroke patients whose foot movements become abnormal because of an abnormal pattern of muscle tone.

Internal rotary deformity recurvatum starts with an abnormal gait in which the forefoot is rotated outward, which causes the person to compensate by overextending the knee, leading to a recurvatum deformity. In the case of nonrotary deformity recurvatum, the foot and ankle are positioned normally, and the knee is the primary abnormality.

An injury that forces hyperextension of the knee is usually the cause of NRD.

All three types of genu recurvatum place strain on the knee and will cause increasing joint deformity if not corrected.

Untreated ERD leads to increasing soft tissue damage as well as permanent recurvatum and genu valgum deformities of the knee. IRD produces a less-severe recurvatum deformity, along with genu varum, or “bow legs.

” NRD causes increasing stress to the posterior soft tissue structures of the knee, which leads to increasing recurvatum deformity.

Physicians use X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) along with gait analysis to diagnose and classify genu recurvatum. Patients who suffer from ERD or IRD usually require foot orthotics to correct their ankle positioning. Physical therapists might tape the knee for support in mild cases. Patients who have more severe recurvatum might require knee braces.

Gait training, balance exercises and proprioceptive exercises can help improve mild to moderate recurvatum, as can exercises to strengthen the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. The treatment depends on the type and severity of recurvatum. Some cases require surgery to repair damage to the knee.


Certlerant Post 2The human body is meant to be in motion. If you are off your feet too long it is sometimes hard to get back to your regular self. This can be especially true with the elderly.Physiotherapy or physical therapy is a health profession dedicated to keeping people mobile, especially after injury.After an injury it is necessary for a trained professional to explain the best way to exercise your body to help the injury, not add more stress to the situation.Part of physical therapy is to be a kind of cheerleader as well. Some people need more encouragement to work their injured body back into shape. This can be even more important in the case of a nastyfall. After a fall people can fear the simple act of walking. Fear of another fall runs deep and a physical therapist needs to gently push a person to get on their feet again with firm support and praising any accomplishment.


Genu Recurvatum

Genu recurvatum

Genu recurvatum is also referred to as back knee or knee hyperextension. It is a type of distortion that affects the knee joint causing the knee to bend backward when the person is on a standing position. The recurvatum appearance is brought by the knees that are situated in a hyperextended position. This problem is more commonly seen in women than in men.

The posture is identified right away by just looking at the person from the side since the alignment of the legs is curved.

From the front position, the recurvatum standing pose of the person could make the kneecaps look they are pointing inwards. This condition is considered as one of the problems that are hard to treat in sports medicine.

Some athletes suffer an injury and have too much curve of their knee in a backward motion which can be quite difficult to handle.

It is very essential to tell the difference between individuals who had a growth plate injury back when they were younger and those who have bone issues with recurvatum, or in individuals who may have had muscle diseases involving the weakening of the quadriceps that results in the hyperextension of the knee.

Symptoms of Genu Recurvatum

A person with genu recurvatum may have difficulty in performing activities that requires endurance. Other symptoms may include:

  • A twinge of pain on the outer back part of the knee referred to as the posterolateral ligamentous
  • An aching pain in the inner-leg part of the knee known as the medial tibiofemoral joint
  • Knee gives away into hyperextension
  • A nipping feeling in the front part of the knee
  • Extension of the gait cycle

Causes of Genu Recurvatum

The injuries that resulted in genu recurvatum are usually caused by an unexpected impact to the extended knee following an injury to some structures of the knee or just the posterior aspect of the knee structures. Other causes involve:

  • A connective tissue disorder
  • Looseness of the knee ligaments
  • An inherited problem or birth defect
  • Joints of the knee are not stable due to ligaments
  • Femur and tibia is not properly aligned
  • Postural habits
  • Some medical diseases multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, or muscular dystrophy
  • Length of the lower limb is not the same
  • Unusual position of the ankle and foot when walking

Types of Genu Recurvatum

Genu recurvatum can vary from mild, moderate, to severe and is divided into three types. These are:

External rotary deformity (ERD)

This is when the person’s foot is positioned in an equinovarus or walking on toe position which is how a horse also walks. The foot touches the ground on the outer edge of the foot. This kind of knee hyperextension is mostly common among stroke patients since the movements of their foot are not normal due to an atypical pattern of the muscle tone.

Internal rotary deformity (IRD)

This is when the person’s pacing is abnormal wherein the forefoot is rotated outward. In return, the person should overextend the knee for compensation and this will then lead to deformity.

Non-rotary deformity (NRD)

The foot and ankle are normally situated with the knee as the primary abnormality. This type of deformity is an injury that pushes the knee to bend backwards.

How is Genu Recurvatum Treated?

It is essential for a person to get a timely diagnosis of genu recurvatum and a proper treatment because if not, it could result to an increased damage of tissues. Any cases of this condition will still place a strain on the knee so if the deformity is not treated, it could become permanent. The treatment will also depend on the severity of the problem. Treatment options include:

Physical Therapy

At the start, the physician might recommend physical therapy to enhance the strength of the quads to compensate for the back knee.

The treatment involves gait training to help the person concentrate on the correct sequencing and keeping control on the limb.

Another one is the proprioceptive training which can improve a person’s balance, coordination, and agility and prevent other injuries in the future.


This gives a favorable support to the knee since it can control the abnormal bending of the knee-joints and stabilizes the leg.

  • Bracing – Physicians suggest this treatment to prevent further hyperextension of the knee.
  • Surgery – In rare cases, a surgical treatment is required to repair the damage of the knee.


  4. Abdelaziz TH, Samir S (2011). Congenital dislocation of the knee: a protocol for management degree of knee flexion. J Child Orthop. 5(2):143-149.
  5. Benson, Michael; Fixsen, John; Macnicol, Malcolm (2009-08-01). Children’s Orthopaedics and Fractures. Springer. pp. 495.
  6. Gorincour G, Chotel F, Rudigoz RC, et al (2003). Prenatal diagnosis of congenital genu recurvatum following amniocentesis complicated by leakage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 22(6):643-645.



  • Pain in your inner-leg portion of your knee called the medial tibiofemoral joint
  • Pain in your outer back portion of your knee called the posterolateral ligamentous structures
  • Extension gait pattern
  • Pinching in the front of your knee
  • Having difficulty in carrying out endurance activities
  • Your knee can give way into hyperextension


Some of the causes of genu recurvatum can include:

  • Misalignment of your ankle joint
  • Knee injuries that involve hyperextension of your knee
  • Excess laxity in your knee joint
  • Postural habits
  • Abnormal ankle and foot position when walking
  • Knee joint instability
  • Weakness in your quadriceps femoris muscle or hip extensor muscles
  • Congenital/birth defect
  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Discrepancy in lower limb length
  • Certain medical diseases such as muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy


To diagnosis genu recurvatum the physician uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or x-rays along with gait analysis. These tests can also help to classify the type of genu recurvatum you have.


It is important that you get a timely diagnosis of genu recurvatum and treat it promptly because if not it can lead to increased tissue damage. Any type of genu recurvatum deformity will place a strain on your knee and cause increasing joint deformity if you do not correct it and this deformity could become permanent.

  • ERD — this can lead to increasing soft tissue damage as well as genu valgum of your knee, which is the medical terminology for knock knees. This is where your lower legs angle outward.
  • IRD — this type produces a less-severe recurvatum and genu varum, which is the medical terminology for bow legs.
  • NFD — this type produces increasing stress to the posterior soft tissue structures of your knee.

Treatment often requires physical therapy so the therapists will brace or tape the knee along with providing muscle balance correction, gait training, and proprioceptive training, which is training that is designed to increase your balance, agility, strength, coordination, and to help prevent further injuries.

If a person has IRD or ERD they will usually need fort orthotics to correct the positioning of their ankles. For the more severe type you may require a knee brace. Exactly which treatment would be used would depend on the severity and type of genu recurvatum you have. There are some cases of genu recurvatum that would require surgery to repair the damage to your knee.


Because genu recurvatum may occur due to an injury or genetically it is not possible to prevent this from happening or having a recurrence of the deformity. Wearing braces or undergoing rehabilitation can help to limit the hyperextension of your knee joint.

Pictures: This is how Genu Recurvatum looks


Genu Rekurvatum Nedir? Belirtileri ve Tedavisi

Genu recurvatum

Genu Rekurvatum, dizinizin aşırı gerginliğinin beş dereceden fazla olduğu tıbbi bir durumdur. Sırt diz veya diz hiperekstansiyonu olarak da adlandırılır. Kadınlarda erkeklerden daha fazla görülmektedir.

Bu durum ortaya çıktığında arka diz yapılarında ve ön çapraz bağlarınızda (ACL) strese neden olabilir ve muhtemelen eklemde kalıcı hasara neden olabilir. Genu rekurvatum olması diz osteoartriti veya diz ağrısı gibi diğer tıbbi durumlara da neden olabilir.

Genu rekurvatum hafif, orta veya şiddetli olabilir.

Genu Rekurvatum Çeşitleri

Genu Rekurvatum

Genu recurvatum’un üç çeşiti vardır:

  • Harici rotatif deformite (ERD) – bu, yürürken ayağınız ekinovarus pozisyonunda kaldığında, bu da bir kulüp ayağının duruşudur. Ayağınız ayağınızın dış kenarında zemin temasını sağlar.Genu rekurvatumun bu türü, normalde kas tonusunda anormal desenleri nedeniyle ayak hareketleri anormal olan inmeli bir hastada görülür.
  • İç rotasyonel deformite (IRD) – bu tip, ön ayağınızı dışa doğru döndüren anormal bir yürüyüşle başlayacağınız zamandır. Bu, dizinizi aşırı uzatarak telafi etmenize ve bu tip deformiteye yol açmanıza neden olacaktır.
  • Rotatif olmayan deformite (NRD) – ayak bileğiniz ve ayağınız dizinin primer anormallik olduğu normal konumlandırılmıştır. Bu tip genu tekrarlayanların sebebi dizinizin aşırı gerginliğini zorlayan bir yaralanmadır.

Genu Rekurvatum Belirtileri

  • Dizinizin bacak bacağındaki medial tibiofemoral eklem adı verilen ağrı
  • Dizinizin dış sırt bölümünde ağrı posterolateral bağ yapıları olarak adlandırılır
  • Uzatma yürüyüş deseni
  • Dizinizin önüne tutturma
  • Dayanıklılık faaliyetlerinde zorluk çeken
  • Diziniz hiperekstansiyona yol açabilir

Genu Rekurvatum Nedenleri

Genu rekurvatumun nedenlerinden bazıları şunları içerebilir:

  • Bacak bileğinizin hizalanması
  • Dizinizin hiperekstansiyonunu içeren diz yaralanmaları
  • Diz ekleminde aşırı gevşeklik
  • Postür alışkanlıkları
  • Yürürken anormal ayak bileği ve ayak pozisyonu
  • Diz eklemi instabilitesi
  • Kafes kaşığı femoris kası veya kalça ekstansör kaslarındaki zayıflık
  • Doğuş / doğum kusuru
  • Bağ dokusu bozuklukları
  • Alt ekstremite uzunluğundaki tutarsızlık
  • Kas distrofi, multipl skleroz ve serebral felç gibi bazı tıbbi hastalıklar

Genu Rekurvatum Teşhisi

Genu tekrarlayan hastalığı teşhis etmek için doktor, yürüme analizi ile birlikte manyetik rezonans görüntüleme (MRI) veya x-ışınları kullanır. Bu testler, sahip olduğunuz genu tekrarlayan cinsi sınıflandırmanıza yardımcı olabilir.

Genu Rekurvatum Tedavisi

Genu recurvatum’un zamanında tanılanması ve derhal tedavi edilmesi önemlidir, aksi halde artmış doku hasarına neden olabilir. Genu tekrarlayan deformite her tür dizinize bir yük getirir ve düzeltmezseniz eklem deformitesine neden olur ve bu deformite kalıcı olabilir.

  • ERD – bu, yumru doku hasarının artmasına ve dizinizin genu valgumuna yol açabilir, bu knock dizler için tıbbi terminolojidir. Burası alt bacaklarınızın dışa açılışıdır.
  • IRD – bu tip, daha az şiddetli recurvatum ve genu varum üretir; bu, yay bacaklarının tıbbi terminolojisidir.
  • NFD – bu tip, dizinizin posterior yumuşak doku yapılarına artan stres üretir.

Terapistler, kas dengesini düzeltme, yürüme eğitimi verme ve denge, çeviklik, güç, koordinasyonu artırmak ve daha fazla engellenmeye yardımcı olmak için tasarlanmış propriyoseptik eğitim sağlamakla birlikte terapiyi dizine koyacak veya bantlayacak şekilde tedaviye genellikle fizik tedaviyi gerektirir.

Eğer bir kişi IRD veya ERD’ye sahip olursa, ayak bileklerinin yerlerini düzeltmek için fort ortezine ihtiyaç duyulur. Daha şiddetli tip için bir diz desteği gerektirebilir. Tam olarak hangi tedavinin kullanılacağı, sahip olduğunuz genu rekurvatumun ciddiyetine ve türüne bağlı olacaktır. Dizindeki hasarı onarmak için cerrahi müdahale gerektiren genu tekrarlayan vakalar vardır.

Genu Rekurvatum Önlemek

Genu rekurvatum bir yaralanma veya genetik olarak oluşabileceği için bunun oluşmasını veya deformitenin tekrarını önlemek mümkün değildir. Ayraçlar giymek veya rehabilitasyona girmek diz ekleminin aşırı ekstansiyonunun sınırlanmasına yardımcı olabilir.

Bir önceki yazımız olan Gastrit Diyeti başlıklı makalemizde gastrit diyeti ve gastrite iyi gelen yiyecekler hakkında bilgiler verilmektedir.

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